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Beliefs about medicines questionnaire (BMQ) Horne, Weinman, Hankins, () Psychology and Health, 14, BMQ –Specific. Your views about medicines. This paper presents a novel method for assessing cognitive representations of medication: the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ). The BMQ-Specific assesses representations of medication prescribed for personal use and the BMQ-General assesses beliefs about medicines in general.

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It was clear at this point that G4 was the item that was mostly inconsistent with the rest of the items on the general overuse scale. During the analysis of alpha, items G4 Natural remedies are safer than medicines and G8 If doctors had more time with patients they would prescribe fewer medicines resulted in unexpectedly lower values.

J Eval Clin Pract. Sample size determination A target sample size of patients per disease group was established. Principal component analysis carried out on individual sub-scales to confirm factor loading. However, this was not done as the recalculated alpha value of 0.

Table 2 Demographic characteristics of study sample.

Principal Component Analysis PCA using Varimax rotation with Kaiser normalisation was carried out to analyse component loading of the items on the respective sub-scales. Inclusion criteria for patients were: Finalisation of the translation allowed for any necessary modifications or rewording of the items.

BMQ – Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire

The principal investigator asked the patients for a few minutes of their time, explained to them that she was conducting a study on the beliefs about medicines and asked them if they would be kind enough to fill in the questionnaire. Meas Eval Couns Dev.

Starting at the beginning: Sampling strategy Patients were recruited through the outpatient clinics, of the main general hospital, in Malta, between July and September At the same time, free translation was also avoided as it could wander too far from the meaning of the original.


She explained that this was not a test, that there were no correct or incorrect answers.

The principle aim of this study was therefore, to produce a culturally and contextually appropriate version of the BMQ in the Maltese language and to assess its psychometric properties.

The forward translation was discussed and revised for better harmonisation of concepts in the instrument, with the intention of capturing the conceptual meaning of the items. This was done through an expert panel in order to resolve discrepancies and allow for agreement between speech habits and preferences in the translated language.

To our knowledge, a validated tool to assess adherence to medicines is not available in the Maltese language. Percentage of Variance explained Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; The questionnaire was collected and checked on completion.

Psychometric properties of the Belief about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) in the Maltese language

Int J Clin Health Psychol. A recalculated alpha value of 0. Significant care was taken during the translation process, engaging professional academic translators of the Maltese language together with healthcare professionals highly proficient in both the Maltese and English language.

This scale presented some anomalies with respect to the internal consistency. Items G5 and G6 loaded on component 2 harm. Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. People who take medicines should stop their treatment for a while every now and again.

Due to the nature of the items loaded on component 4, this was identified as the Specific-concerns sub-scale items developed as representative of bkq scale include S2, S5, S6, S8, S9. In the case of the Specific-concerns factor, all items loaded on the concerns factor, however items S6 My medicines are a mystery to me and S8 My medicines disrupt my life gave higher loadings on the Qyestionnaire harm factor.


Investigating beliefs about medicines has been of interest over the past years, with studies aiming to better understand theoretical reasons behind development of such beliefs. Problems with G4 were also present in other studies.

Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ)

Articles from Pharmacy Practice are provided here courtesy of Centro de Investigaciones y Publicaciones Farmaceuticas.

Ranges of alpha are shown for all groups involved in the study.

To further confirm factor loading, PCA was then carried out on the items in each sub-scale in order to verify that the items in each sub-scale were loading on one mediicnes. Principal component analysis using varimax rotation with Kaiser Normalisation. Principal Component Analysis Principal component analysis with Varimax rotation confirmed the original four factor structure Table 6 and Table 7 explaining In the original and German version, item G4 loaded on both the overuse and the harm scale.

Higher scores in the General-Harm and General-Overuse scales represent an overall negative perception of medication. Therefore, patients with different levels of education should be targeted differently when counselling patients about their medicines. The Maltese version of the BMQ was found to have acceptable medidines properties for the beliefs about medicines in the Maltese population.

Cross-cultural adaptation of the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire into Portuguese. The beliefs about medicines questionnaire: Open in a separate window. Beliefs about health and illness in women managed for gestational diabetes in two organisations.